Tuesday, 19 February 2019
Research team: Australia PDF Print E-mail

Name: DAVID CLARKE
LPS Project Co-ordinator

David Clarke

Position: Professor
Director, International Centre for Classroom Research
Melbourne Graduate School of Education
University of Melbourne

Contact details:
International Centre for Classroom Research University of Melbourne
109 Barry Street, Carlton
Victoria 3053, Australia

Phone: +61 3 8344 1140
Fax: +61 3 8344 1058
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Home-page: www.djclarke.iccr.edu

Recent and current professional activities:
David Clarke is Professor in the Melbourne Graduate School of Education at the University of Melbourne and Director of the International Centre for Classroom Research (ICCR). Over the last twenty years, his research activity has centred on capturing the complexity of classroom practice through a program of international video-based classroom research. The ICCR provides the focus for collaborative activities among researchers from more than 20 countries. Professor Clarke has worked with school systems and teachers throughout Australia and in the USA, Canada, Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Korea, Singapore, China, Japan, Malaysia, and the Federated States of Micronesia. Research collaborations also include the Czech Republic, Finland, Israel, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, and the United Kingdom. Other significant research by Professor Clarke has addressed teacher professional learning, metacognition, problem-based learning, and assessment (particularly the use of open-ended tasks for assessment and instruction in mathematics). Current research activities involve multi-theoretic research designs, cross-cultural analyses, discourse in and about classrooms internationally, curricular alignment, and the challenge of research synthesis in education.

Classroom-related research projects led by Professor Clarke include: The Negotiation of Meaning Project; The Learner’s Perspective Study (LPS); The Causal Connections in Science Classrooms project; The Alignment Project; and The Lexicon Project. Central to this program of research is the capturing and untangling of the complexity of classroom practice and the patterns of participation and discourse evident in mathematics and science classrooms in a wide variety of school systems around the world. The analysis of the extensive international data set generated by this research program is undertaken at the International Centre for Classroom Research, directed by Professor Clarke and dedicated to the storage and analysis of large-scale video-based international studies of classroom practice.

Professor Clarke has written books on assessment and on classroom research and has published his research work in over 150 book chapters, journal articles and conference proceedings papers. Publications include the following books: Assessment Alternatives in Mathematics, as part of the Mathematics Curriculum and Teaching Program (1989); Communication in the Classroom: The Importance of Good Questioning, with Peter Sullivan, published by Deakin University Press (1991); Constructive Assessment in Mathematics: Practical steps for classroom teachers, published by Key Curriculum Press in the USA (1997), Communicating mathematics - perspectives from current research and classroom practice in Australia, published jointly by the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers (AAMT) and ACER, Hawthorn, Victoria (1993), and Perspectives on Practice and Meaning in Mathematics and Science Classrooms published by Kluwer Academic Publishers in 2001. Professor Clarke is also Series Editor for the Learner’s Perspective Study (LPS) Research Series, published by Sense Publishers, of which Mathematics Classrooms in Twelve Countries: The Insider’s Perspective, Making Connections: Comparing Mathematics Classrooms Around the World and Mathematical Tasks in Classrooms Around the World are the first three books in the series. Professor Clarke was also the invited author of the chapter on Assessment in the 1996 International Handbook of Mathematics Education and of the chapter on International Comparative Research in Mathematics Education in the Second International Handbook of Mathematics Education published in 2003 and co-author of the chapter on Institutional Contexts for Research in Mathematics Education in the Third International Handbook of Mathematics Education, published in 2012.

Presentations have been made to a wide range of audiences in Australia, the USA, South-East Asia, Europe, South Africa and Latin America on assessment and on research into classroom learning. Reports of recent research into classroom learning have been presented at several national and international conferences, including invited plenary addresses to the East Asian Regional Conference On Mathematics Education (EARCOME, Tokyo, 2010) and the Finnish Educational Research Association (FERA, Helsinki, 2012).


Selected publications on Classroom Research (see personal website for additional publications)

Brown, T. & Clarke, D. J. (2013). Institutional Contexts for Research in Mathematics Education. Chapter 15 in M. A. (Ken) Clements, A. J. Bishop, C. Keitel, J. Kilpatrick, & F. K. S. Leung (Eds.) Third International Handbook of Mathematics Education (pp. 459-484). New York: Springer.

Clarke, D. J. (2013). Contingent Conceptions of Accomplished Practice: The Cultural Specificity of Discourse in and about the Mathematics Classroom. ZDM: The International Journal in Mathematics Education 45(1), 21-33.

Xu, L. & Clarke, D. (2013). Meta-rules of discursive practice in mathematics classrooms from Seoul, Shanghai, and Tokyo. ZDM - The International Journal on Mathematics Education 45(1), 61-72.

Clarke, D. J., Clarke, D. M., & Sullivan, P. (2012). How do mathematics teachers decide what to teach? Curriculum authority and sources of information accessed by Australian teachers. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 17(3). 9-12.

Clarke, D. M., Clarke, D. J., & Sullivan, P. (2012). Important Ideas in Mathematics: What are they and where do you get them? Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 17(3). 13-18.

Sullivan, P., Clarke, D. J., & Clarke, D. M. (2012). Teacher Decisions about Planning and Assessment in Primary Mathematics. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 17(3), 20-23.

Sullivan, P., Clarke, D. J., & Clarke, D. M. (2012). Choosing tasks to match the content you are wanting to teach. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 17(3), 24-27.

Sullivan, P., Clarke, D. J., & Clarke, D. M. (2012). Reasoning in the Australian Curriculum: Understanding its meaning and using the relevant language. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 17(3), 28-32.

Sullivan, P., Clarke, D. M., Clarke, D. J., Albright, J., Farrell, L., Freebody, P., Gerrard, J., & Michels, D. (2012). Teachers’ Planning Processes: Seeking insights from Australian teachers. Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 17(3). 4-8.

Clarke, D. J., Wang, L., Xu, L., Aizikovitsh-Udi, E., & Cao, Y. (2012). International comparisons of mathematics classrooms and curricula: The validity-comparability compromise. In T.Y. Tso (Ed.), Proceedings of the 36th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME36), Taipei-Taiwan, July 18 to 22, Volume 2, 171-178.

Clarke, D. J., Xu, L. H., Arnold, J., Seah, L. H., Hart, C., Tytler, R., & Prain, V. (2012). Multi-theoretic Approaches to Understanding the Science Classroom. In C. Bruguière, A. Tiberghien, P. Clément (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2011 Biennial Conference of the European Science Education Research Association, Part 3, 26-30, Lyon, France, September 7 to 11, 2011 (e-Book published March 23, 2012).

Remedios, L., Clarke, D., & Hawthorne, L. (2012). Learning to listen and listening to learn: one student’s experience of small group collaborative learning. The Australian Educational Researcher 39(3), 333-348.

Xu, L., & Clarke, D. (2012). Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective. Research in Science Education 42(4), 769-789.

Xu, L., & Clarke, D. (2012). What Does Distributed Cognition Tell Us about Student Learning of Science? Research in Science Education 42(3), 491-510.

Seah, L. H., Clarke, D. J. & Hart, C. (2011). Understanding students' language use about expansion through analyzing their lexicogrammatical resources. Science Education, 95(5), 852-876.

Clarke, D. J. (2011). A Less Partial Vision: Theoretical Inclusivity and Critical Synthesis in Mathematics Classroom Research. In J. Clark, B. Kissane, J. Mousley, T. Spencer & S. Thornton (Eds.) Mathematics: Traditions and [New] Practices. Proceedings of the AAMT–MERGA conference held in Alice Springs, 3–7 July 2011. Adelaide: AAMT/MERGA, pp. 192–200.

Clarke, D.J. (2010). The Cultural Specificity of Accomplished Practice: Contingent Conceptions of Excellence. In Y. Shimizu, Y. Sekiguchi, & K. Hino (Eds.). In Search of Excellence in Mathematics Education. Proceedings of the 5th East Asia Regional Conference on Mathematics Education (EARCOME5), Tokyo: Japan Society of Mathematical Education, pp. 14-38.

Clarke, D.J. (2010). Speaking in and about mathematics classrooms internationally: The technical vocabulary of students and teachers. In G. Masters, J. Ainley, K. Stacey, D. Leigh-Lancaster, R. Turner, K-A. Hoad & L. Rosman (Eds.), Teaching mathematics? Make it count. Keynote published in the Proceedings of the Australian Council for Educational Research 2010 Conference, pp. 3-7. Melbourne: ACER.

Clarke, D.J., Emanuelsson, J., & Ohtani, M. (2010). Research Forum 3: Speaking in and about the mathematics classroom. In M. M. F. Pinto & T. F. Kawasaki (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology in Mathematics Education, Vol. 1, pp. 213-243. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: PME.

Clarke, D. J., Xu, L. H., & Wan, M. E. V. (2010). The function of spoken mathematics in mathematics classrooms in different cultural settings. In M. M. F. Pinto & T. F. Kawasaki (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology in Mathematics Education, Vol. 1, pp. 222-225. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: PME.

Mitchell, C., Bowman, P. & Clarke, D. J. (2010). The challenge of describing mathematics classrooms internationally. In M. M. F. Pinto & T. F. Kawasaki (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology in Mathematics Education, Vol. 1, pp. 229-230. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: PME.

Cao, Y., Clarke, D. J., & Xu, L. H. (2010). Qifa Shi Teaching: Confucian Heuristics. In M. M. F. Pinto & T. F. Kawasaki (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology in Mathematics Education, Vol. 1, pp. 232-234. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: PME.

Clarke, D. J. & Mesiti, C. (2010). The Lexicon Project: Accessing the pedagogical vocabulary in languages other than English. In M. M. F. Pinto & T. F. Kawasaki (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology in Mathematics Education, Vol. 1, pp. 237-238. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: PME.

Clarke, D. J. (2010). Speaking in and about the mathematics classroom: A recapitulation. In M. M. F. Pinto & T. F. Kawasaki (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology in Mathematics Education, Vol. 1, pp. 239-243. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: PME.

Clarke, D. J., Xu, L., & Wan, V. (2010). Student speech as an instructional priority: Mathematics classrooms in seven culturally-differentiated cities. Innovation and Creativity in Education, 2(2), 3811-3817.

Clarke, D. J., Xu, L., & Wan, V. (2010). Spoken mathematics as a distinguishing characteristic of mathematics classrooms in different countries. Mathematics Bulletin a journal for educators (China), Volume 49, Special Issue (Y. Li & Z. Huan (Eds.), Mathematics education: perspectives and practices in the East and West), 1 -12.

Shimizu, Y., Kaur, B., Huang, R., & Clarke, D.J. (Eds.) (2010). Mathematical Tasks in Classrooms Around the World. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Shimizu, Y., Kaur, B., Huang, R., & Clarke, D.J. (2010). The Role of Mathematical Tasks in Different Cultures. Chapter 1 in Y. Shimizu, B. Kaur, R. Huang, & D. J. Clarke (Eds.). Mathematical Tasks in Classrooms Around the World. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, pp. 1–14.

Mesiti, C. & Clarke, D.J. (2010). A functional analysis of mathematical tasks in China, Japan, Sweden, Australia and the U.S.A: Voice and Agency. Chapter 10 in Y. Shimizu, B. Kaur, R. Huang, & D.J. Clarke (Eds.), Mathematical Tasks in Classrooms Around the World. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, pp. 185-216.

Clarke, D. J. (2010). Appendix A: The LPS Research Design. In Y. Shimizu, B. Kaur, R. Huang, & D.J. Clarke (Eds.), Mathematical Tasks in Classrooms Around the World. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 217-232.

Clarke, D.J. (2009). Mind your language: Speaking in and about the mathematics classroom. In D. Martin, T. Fitzpatrick, R. Hunting, D. Itter, C. Lenard, T. Mills, & L. Milne (Eds.), Mathematics of Prime Importance, Brunswick: MAV, pp. 34-49.

Clarke, D.J., Mitchell, C. & Bowman, P. (2009). Optimising the use of available technology to support international collaborative research in mathematics classrooms. In T. Janik & T. Seidel (Eds.) The power of video studies in investigating teaching and learning in the classroom, New York: Waxmann, pp. 39-60.

Clarke, D.J., Xu, L.H., & Wan, M.E.V. (2009). Spoken mathematics and learning outcomes in international mathematics classrooms (abstract of poster presentation). In M. Tzekaki, M. Kadrimidou, & H. Sakonidis (Eds.), In Search for Theories in Mathematics Education. Proceedings of the 33rd Conference of the International Group for Psychology of Mathematics Education, Volume 5. Thessaloniki, Greece: PME, page 448.

Remedios, L. & Clarke, D.J. (2009). Cultural Origins of Patterns of Participation in Multi-cultural Classrooms. Chapter 11 in M. César & K. Kumpulainen (Eds.), Social Interactions in Multicultural Settings. Dordrecht: Sense Publishers, 297-327.

Clarke, D.J., Mesiti, C., O’Keefe, C., Xu, L.H., Jablonka, E., Mok, I. A. C., & Shimizu, Y. (2008). Addressing the Challenge of Legitimate International Comparisons of Classroom Practice. International Journal of Educational Research 46(5), 280-293.

Clarke, D.J. & Xu, L.H. (2007). Examining Asian Mathematics Classrooms Through the Lens of the Distribution of Responsibility for Knowledge Generation. Proceedings of EARCOME4 (the 4th East-Asian Research Conference on Mathematics Education), June 18-22, 2007. Penang: University of Malaysia, pp. 518-524.

Clarke, D., Xu, L.H., & Mitchell, C. (2007, April). Exploiting available technologies to align methodology and theory in the study of science classrooms internationally. Refereed paper accepted for presentation at the annual conference of the National Association for Research on Science Teaching (USA), New Orleans, July 15-18, 2007.

Clarke, D.J. (2006). Using International Research to Deconstruct Dichotomies in Educational Theorising. Presented at the annual conference of the European Educational Research Association, Geneva, Switzerland, September 13-16.

Clarke, D.J. (2006). The Structure of Instruction: Lesson Events as Appropriate Units of International Comparative Analysis. Presented at the annual conference of the European Educational Research Association, Geneva, Switzerland, September 13-16.

Clarke, D.J. (2006). Using International Comparative Research to Contest Prevalent Oppositional Dichotomies. Zentralblatt für Didaktik der Mathematik, 38(5), 376-387.

Heinze, A., Lipowsky, F., & Clarke, D.J. (Eds) (2006). Special Issue of Zentralblatt für Didaktik der Mathematik, 38(5), titled: Videobased Instructional Research and the Use of Video Technology in Teacher Education.

Heinze, A., Lipowsky, F., & Clarke, D.J. (2006). Introduction. Zentralblatt für Didaktik der Mathematik, 38(5), 366-367.

Clarke, D.J., Keitel, C., & Shimizu, Y. (Eds.) (2006). Mathematics Classrooms in Twelve Countries: The Insider's Perspective. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. [PB ISBN 90-77874-95-X; HB ISBN 90-77874-99-2]

Clarke, D.J., Emanuelsson, J., Jablonka, E., & Mok, I.A.C. (Eds.). (2006). Making Connections: Comparing Mathematics Classrooms Around the World. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. [PB ISBN 90-77874-79-8; HB ISBN 90-77874-90-9]

Clarke, D.J., Keitel, C., & Shimizu, Y. (2006). The Learner’s Perspective Study. Chapter 1 in D.J. Clarke, C. Keitel, & Y. Shimizu (Eds.), Mathematics Classrooms in Twelve Countries: The Insider’s Perspective. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 1-14.

Clarke, D.J. (2006). The LPS Research Design. Chapter 2 in D.J. Clarke, C. Keitel, & Y. Shimizu (Eds.), Mathematics Classrooms in Twelve Countries: The Insider’s Perspective. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 15-37.

Clarke, D.J., Emanuelsson, J., Jablonka, E., & Mok, I. A. C. (2006). The Learner’s Perspective Study and International Comparisons of Classroom Practice. Chapter 1 in D.J. Clarke, J. Emanuelsson, E. Jablonka, and I.A.H. Mok (Eds.). Making Connections: Comparing Mathematics Classrooms Around the World. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 1-22.

Clarke, D.J., Mesiti, C., Jablonka, E., & Shimizu, Y. (2006). Addressing the Challenge of Legitimate International Comparisons: Lesson Structure in the USA, Germany and Japan. Chapter 2 in D.J. Clarke, J. Emanuelsson, E. Jablonka, and I.A.H. Mok (Eds.). Making Connections: Comparing Mathematics Classrooms Around the World. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 23-46.

Mesiti, C. & Clarke, D.J. (2006). Beginning the Lesson: The First Ten Minutes. Chapter 3 in D.J. Clarke, J. Emanuelsson, E. Jablonka, and I.A.H. Mok (Eds.). Making Connections: Comparing Mathematics Classrooms Around the World. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 47-72.

O’Keefe, C., Xu, Li Hua, & Clarke, D.J. (2006). Kikan-Shido: Between Desks Instruction. Chapter 4 in D.J. Clarke, J. Emanuelsson, E. Jablonka, and I.A.H. Mok (Eds.). Making Connections: Comparing Mathematics Classrooms Around the World. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 73-106.

Clarke, D.J. (2006). Deconstructing Dichotomies: Arguing for a More Inclusive Approach. Chapter 11 in D.J. Clarke, J. Emanuelsson, E. Jablonka, and I.A.H. Mok (Eds.). Making Connections: Comparing Mathematics Classrooms Around the World. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 215-236.

Clarke, D.J. (2006). Appendix A: The LPS Research Design. In D.J. Clarke, J. Emanuelsson, E. Jablonka, and I.A.H. Mok (Eds.). Making Connections: Comparing Mathematics Classrooms Around the World. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 237-252.

Mesiti, C. & Clarke, D.J. (2006). Beginning the Lesson: The Instructional Practice of "Review" in Eight Different Mathematics Classrooms. In J. Novotna, H. Moraova, M. Kratka, & N. Stehlikova (Eds.), Mathematics in the centre, Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for Psychology in Mathematics, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006, vol. 1, p. 408.

O'Keefe, C., Xu, L.H., & Clarke, D.J. (2006). Kikan-Shido: Through the Lens of Guiding Student Activity. In J. Novotna, H. Moraova, M. Kratka, & N. Stehlikova (Eds.), Mathematics in the centre, Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for Psychology in Mathematics, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006, volume 4, pp. 265-272.

Clarke, D.J., Shimizu, Y., Ulep, S.A., Gallos, F.L., Sethole, G., Adler, J., & Vithal, R. (2006). Cultural Diversity and the Learner’s Perspective: Attending to Voice and Context. Chapter 3-3 in F.K.S. Leung, K-D. Graf, & F.J. Lopez-Real (Eds.) Mathematics Education in Different Cultural Traditions – A Comparative Study of East Asia and the West: The 13th ICMI Study. New York: Springer, pp. 353-380.

Remedios, L. & Clarke, D.J. (2006). Not Learning to Listen and Learning Not to Listen: A Problem in Problem-Based Learning. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, USA, April 7 to 11.

Clarke, D.J. (2005). Essential Complementarities: Arguing for an Integrative Approach to Research in Mathematics Classrooms. In P. Clarkson, A. Downton, D. Gronn, M. Horne, A. McDonough, R. Pierce, & A. Roche (Eds.), Building Connections: Theory, Research and Practice. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Vol. 1, Sydney: MERGA Inc., 3-17.

Clarke, D.J. & Seah, Lay Hoon (2005). Studying the distribution of responsibility for the generation of knowledge in mathematics classrooms in Hong Kong, Melbourne, San Diego and Shanghai. In H. L. Chick & J. L. Vincent (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 2, h 257-264.

Clarke, D.J. (2005). Instructed Learning: An Integrative Perspective on Classroom Practice and Learning. The Mathematics Educator, 8(2), 34-52 (published through the National Institute of Education, Singapore).

Clarke, D.J. (2004). Researching Classroom Learning and Learning Classroom Research. Guest Editorial in The Mathematics Educator, 14(2), 2-6 (published through the University of Georgia-Athens, USA).

Clarke, D.J. (2004). Patterns of Participation in the Mathematics Classroom. In M.J. Høines & A.B. Fuglestad (Eds), Proceedings of the 28th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 2, Bergen: Bergen University College, 231-238.

Clarke, D.J. (2004). The Practice of Researching Practice: Inevitable Reflexivities. In H. Forgasz, S. Groves, B. Jane, J. Mousley, I. Robottom, R. Tytler, J. Lynch, & B. Doig (Eds.) Contemporary Approaches to Research in Mathematics, Science, Health and Environmental Education 2000. Burwood: Deakin University, 3-15.

Clarke, D. J. (2004). Learner's Perspective Study: Developing Meaning from Complementary Accounts of Practice. In Johnsen Hoines M & Berit Fuglestad A(eds), Proceedings of the 28th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: PME 28. 1 212-216. Bergen, Norway: Bergen University College.

Clarke, D.J., Sahlström, F., Mitchell, C. & Clarke, N. (2004). Optimising the Use of Available Technology in Educational Research. In V. Uskov (Ed.), Proceedings of the Seventh IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education, Zurich: ACTA press, 191-196.

Clarke, D.J. International Comparative Studies in Mathematics Education. Chapter 5 in A.J. Bishop, M.A. Clements, C. Keitel, J. Kilpatrick, and F.K.S. Leung (eds.) Second International Handbook of Mathematics Education, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 145-186. (2003)

Clarke, D.J. & Hollingsworth, H. (2002) Elaborating a model of teacher professional growth. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18(8), 947-967.

Clarke, D.J. (2002). Developments in International Comparative Research in Mathematics Education: Problematising Cultural Explanations. In S. L. Y. Yam & S. Y. S. Lau (Eds.) ICMI Comparative Study Conference 2002: Pre-Conference Proceedings, Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong, pp. 7-16.

Clarke, D.J. (Ed.) (2001). Perspectives on practice and meaning in mathematics and science classrooms. An edited book, published by Kluwer Academic Press: Dordrecht, Netherlands. (355 pages) (ISBN 0-7923-6938-6, hardcover; ISBN 0-7923-6939-4, paperback).

Barnes, M., Clarke, D.J., & Stephens, W.M. (2000). Assessment as the Engine of Systemic Reform. Journal of Curriculum Studies 32(5), 623-650.

Clarke, D.J. (1998). Studying the classroom negotiation of meaning: Complementary accounts methodology. Chapter 7 in A. Teppo (Ed.) Qualitative research methods in mathematics education. Monograph Number 9 of the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. Reston, VA: NCTM, pp. 98-111.

Clarke, D.J. & Helme, S. (1998). Context as construction. In O. Bjorkqvist (Ed.) Mathematics Teaching from a Constructivist Point of View. Vasa, Finland: Faculty of Education, Abo Akademi University.

Clarke, D.J. (1997). Constructive Assessment in Mathematics: Practical Steps for Classroom Teachers. Berkeley, CA: Key Curriculum Press (87 pages) (ISBN 1-55953-201-7).

Clarke, D.J. (1996). Assessment. Chapter 9 in A. Bishop (Ed.) International Handbook of Mathematics Education. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

Clarke, D.J., Waywood, A., & Stephens, W.M. (1994). Probing the structure of mathematical writing. Educational Studies in Mathematics 25(3), 235-250.

Clarke, D.J. (1989). Assessment Alternatives in Mathematics. Canberra: Curriculum Development Centre (68 pages) (ISBN 186366 0194).

Sullivan, P. & Clarke, D.J. (1988). Asking Better Questions. Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in South East Asia, June,14 -19.

Clarke, D.J. (1987). The Interactive Monitoring of Children's Learning of Mathematics. For the learning of mathematics 7(1), 2 - 6.

Clarke, D.J. (1985). The Impact of Secondary Schooling and Secondary Mathematics on Student Mathematical Behaviour. Educational Studies in Mathematics 16(3), 231 - 257.



Name: DR. GAYE WILLIAMS
LPS Data Co-ordinator for Australia


 

Contact details:
Lecturer in Mathematics Education
Faculty of Education
Deakin University
Burwood Campus
221 Burwood Highway
Burwood
Victoria
Australia 3125

Phone: +613 92446629
Fax: +613 9244 6834
Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Recent and current professional activities:
2000-2004 Melbourne Co-ordinator for Data Collection, LPS

Gaye Williams undertook her PhD thesis within the Learners’ Perspective Study under the supervision of Professor David Clarke. She focused her own idiosyncratic question within the broader LPS study and worked out how the LPS data collection techniques could be used to answer her question. She submitted her thesis for examination in September 2005: “Improving Intellectual and Affective Quality in Mathematics Lessons: How Autonomy and Spontaneity Enable Creative and Insightful Thinking”

This thesis is available at: http://eprints.infodiv.unimelb.edu.au/archive/00002533/

Dr Gaynor Williams was awarded the 2006 Australian Association for Research in Education Award for Doctoral Research in Education for this thesis.

Participation in the LPS study enriched Gaye’s PhD experience. As a member of the LPS study, she was present during data collection in Germany School 2, Australian Schools 1-4, US School 1, and Philippines School 1. She also observed classes and discussed the curriculum with two teachers in South Africa Schools 1-2. She interviewed the student and teachers in the four Australian classrooms and most of the students in US School 1 class.

Gaye interacted with members of the international LPS team on a regular basis, and had opportunity to have her work critiqued by a diverse group of ‘friendly experts’ at LPS conferences. These opportunities to discuss her work with experts who were familiar with the data and data collection techniques provided an experience that is not often available to PhD students in education in Australia.

In 2006, as a lecturer and researcher at Deakin University, Gaye Williams is examining “The role of optimism in collaborative problem solving in mathematics” using an adaptation of the LPS data collection techniques. More information about this new project is available under ICCR projects webpage.

Selected publications:

Williams, G. (2006). Autonomous Looking-In to support creative mathematical thinking: Capitalising on activity in Australian LPS classrooms. In D. Clarke, C. Kietel, Y. Shimizu (Eds). Mathematics classrooms in twelve countries: the insider's perspective (pp. 221-236), Sense Publications.

Williams, G. (2006) Impetus to explore: Approaching operational deficiency optimistically. In J. Novotna, H. Moraova, M. Kratka, N. Stehlikova. Proceedings of the 30th conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol. 5, pp. 393-400). Prague, Czech Republic: PME.

Williams, G. (2006). Student-engineered ‘Space to Think’. In P. Grootenboer, R. Zevenbergen, & M. Chinnappan (Eds.), Identities cultures and learning spaces (Vol. 2, pp. 567-576). Canberra, ACT: Mathematical Education Research Group of Australasia.

Williams, G. (2005) Consolidating one novel structure whilst constructing two more, Learners and learning environments: proceedings of 29th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics, pp. 313-321, PME, Melbourne.

Williams, G. (2004). The nature of spontaneity in high quality learning situations. In M. Hoines & A. Berit Fuglestad (Eds.), Proceedings of the 28th conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol. 4, pp. 433-440). Bergen, Norway: PME.

Williams, G. (2003). Empirical generalisation as an inadequate cognitive scaffold to theoretical generalisation of a more complex concept. In N. Pateman, B. Dougherty & J. Zilliox (Eds.), Joint Meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education and the Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Meeting of North America (Vol. 4, pp. 419-426). Honolulu: University of Hawaii.

Williams, G. (2003). Associations between student pursuit of novel mathematical ideas and resilience. In L. Bragg, C. Campbell, G. Herbert & J. Mousley (Eds.), Mathematical Education Research: Innovation, Networking, Opportunity (Vol. 2, pp. 752-759). Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia.

Williams, G. (2003). Spaces of learning that promote insightful and creative mathematical behaviour: A theoretical framework. Contribution to the symposium "Configurative Visions of the Space of Learning" at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, April 21-25, 2003.(download pdf)

Williams, G., & Clarke, D. J. (2003). Dyadic patterns of participation and collaborative concept creation: 'looking in' as a stimulus to complex mathematical thinking. Paper presented as part of the symposium "Patterns of Participation in the Classroom" at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, April 21-25, 2003. (download pdf)

Williams, G. (2002). Associations between mathematically insightful collaborative behaviour and positive affect. In A. Cockburn and E. Nardi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, University of East Anglia (Vol. 4, pp. 401-408) Norwich, England.

Williams, G. (2002) Identifying tasks that promote creative thinking in Mathematics: a tool. In B. Barton, K. Irwin, M. Pfannkuch & M. Thomas (Eds.), Mathematical Education in the South Pacific. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. Auckland, New Zealand: MERGA, vol. II, pp. 698-705.

Williams, G. & Clarke, D.J. (2002). The contribution of student voice in classroom research: A case study. In Section III of C. Malcolm & C. Lubisi (Eds.), Proceedings of the tenth annual meeting of the Southern African Association for Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. Durban: University of Natal, pp. 398-404.

Barnes, M.. Clarke, D., & Williams, G. (2001). Methodological and Ethical Issues in Interviewing Schoolchildren. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for Qualitative Research, Melbourne, July 6-7.

Williams, G. (2001). 'cause Pepe and I have the same level of intelligence in mathematics': collaborative concept creation. In J. Bobis, B. Perry & M. Mitchelmore (Eds.), Numeracy and Beyond. Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. Sydney: MERGA, vol. II, pp. 539-546.

Other related research papers:

Wood, T., Williams, G., & Mc Neal, B. (2006). Children’s mathematical thinking in different classroom cultures. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, (37)3, 222-252.

Williams, G. (2003b). Student inclination to work with unfamiliar challenging problems: the role of resilience. In B. Clarke, A. Bishop, R. Cameron, H. Forgasz & W. Seah (Eds.), Making Mathematicians (pp. 374-385). Melbourne, Victoria: Mathematical Association of Victoria. (download pdf)

Williams, G. (2002b). Developing a shared understanding of task complexity. In L. Bazzini & C. Whybrow Inchley (Eds.), Littéracie Mathématique à L'ere Digitale. Proceedings of the Commission Internationale pour l' Étude et L'Amélioration de l'Enseignement des Mathématiques 53. Milano: Ghisetti e Corvi Editorion.

Williams, G. (2001). Sustained overlap in Zones of Proximal Development? If so, how did that happen? In M. van den Heuvel-Panhuizen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 25th conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol. 1, pp. 378). Utrecht, the Netherlands: PME.

Williams, G. (2000). Collaborative problem solving and discovered complexity. In J. Bana & A. Chapman (Eds.), Mathematics Education Beyond 2000. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. Perth, Western Australia: MERGA, vol. II, pp. 656-663.

Teacher oriented papers:

Williams, G. (2001). Year 8 Maths-Tasks that contributed to student learning. In C. Vale, J. Horwood & J. Roumeliotis (Eds.), 2001 Mathematical Odyssey. Melbourne, Victoria: Mathematical Association of Victoria, pp. 218-233.

Williams, G. (2002). Have faith in students' ability to think mathematically. In C. Vale, J. Roumeliotis and J. Horwood (Eds.), Valuing Mathematics in Society (pp. 114-126). Brunswick, Victoria: Mathematical Association of Victoria. (download pdf)


Name: CATHERINE O'KEEFE
Senior Research Assistant



Contact details:
International Centre for Classroom Research
Department of Science and Mathematics
Faculty of Education
University of Melbourne
Parkville 3010
Victoria, Australia

Phone: +61 3 8344 1140
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Name: CARMEL MESITI
Senior Research Assistant



Contact details:
International Centre for Classroom Research
Department of Science and Mathematics
Faculty of Education
University of Melbourne
Parkville 3010
Victoria, Australia

Phone: +61 3 8344 1139
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Research Associates of the Australian Research Group

Name: Katja Kofod Svan
High school teacher in Mathematics and Physics



Contact details:
Ved Andebakken 7, 4. tv
2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark

Phone:+45 30131976
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it



Name: DEREK HOLTON
Position: Professor of Pure Mathematics



Contact details
University of Otago, Box 56, Dunedin, NZ

Phone: +64 3 479 7758
Fax: +64 3 479 8427
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Web-page: www.maths.otago.ac.nz


Recent and current professional activities:
In addition to research and other professional involvement in various aspects of pure mathematics, Derek is involved in a range of mathematics educational activities. He chaired a recent ICMI study into the teaching and learning of mathematics at university level and is involved in a website for primary maths teachers (www.nzmaths.co.nz). He currently is organising the Delta '03 conference on the teaching and learning of mathematics at university level, which is to be held in New Zealand in November 2003. On the research side he is interested in problem solving, ways to improve teaching and learning, and how students (and adults) think mathematically. Derek spent three months at the University of Melbourne during 2002, continuing his collaborative work with David Clarke into a theoretical framework that integrates scaffolding and metacognition.

Selected publications:
Derek Holton, (in press). A first lecture in graph theory. To appear in Teaching Maths and its Applications.

A. Ahmed, H. Williams, and D. Holton (2002). Effective learning and teaching, in P. Kahn and J.Kyle(Eds.) Mathematics and its applications, London: Kogan Page, pp 34-48.

Warwick Evans, Jean Flower, and Derek Holton (2001). Peer tutoring in first year undergraduate mathematics, iJMEST, 32(2), pp 161-173.

P. Hilton, D. Holton and J. Pedersen (2001). Mathematical Vistas, New York: Springer.

Derek Holton (Ed.) (2001). The Teaching And Learning Of Mathematics At University Level, Dordrecht:Kluwer Academic.

Derek Holton, Afzal Ahmed, Honor Williams, and Christine Hill (2001). On the importance of mathematical play, iJMEST, 32(3), 401-415.

Derek Holton and Gill Thomas (2001). Mathematical interactions and their influence on learning. Chapter 5 in David Clarke (Ed.) Perspectives on practice and meaning in mathematics and science classrooms. Dordrecht:Kluwer Academic, pp 75-104.

Derek Holton, Julie Anderson, and David Fletcher (1999). Mathematical Problem solving in support of the curriculum? iJMEST, 30(3), 351-371.

P. Hilton, D. Holton and J. Pedersen (1997). Mathematical Reflections, New York: Springer.

 

Acknowledgements:

Data collection, digitising, transcribing, coding, and storage required the conscientious efforts of a good-humoured team of hard-working colleagues. David and Gaye would like to express their gratitude to: Daniel Barker (transcribing), Katherine Barnett (transcribing and admin assistance), Paul Butcher (video), Krisha Clarke (transcribing), Nathan Clarke (video, sound, digitising and data storage), Ari Engleman (time-coding and transcript quality control), Kate Fernandez (video, transcribing and admin assistance), David Fox (transcribing), Brenda Menzel (transcript quality control), Julienne Lee (video), Cameron Mitchell (technical guru, data storage and web design), Nat Neilson (transcribing), Ana Remesal (video), Adam Schappendock (time-coding and transcript quality control), Sally Watt (lit. searches and transcribing), and Yun Zhong (lesson table construction).

 
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